C and C++ Languages are the Microsoft's Official Languages and each have their own corresponding Libraries and Frameworks.
For C Programming we have WIN32 API which comes with Windows Operating System to build Windows Applications.
For C++ Language we have MFC which is the Object Oriented Wrapper on Top of WIN32 API functions.
WIN32 API can be picked up easily and has the potential to build great applications based on procedural paradigm development. It is easy to write apps with this API and is definitely the most popular API that comes along with the Windows OS.
Microsoft Foundation Classes is just an Object Oriented Wrapper on top of WIN32 API and can also be learned easily to get the concepts right. Don't be discouraged if first you can't pick up MFC right. It gives a great performance as the functions are closer to the API and app runs really at Lightning Speed.
Programming with WIN32 API
Programming with MFC